Stay on a healthy track in 2018

Studies say that the average person gains 7-10 pounds over the holidays. If that sounds like you, don’t fret. Lauren Gaskey, PURE IBO, personal trainer and author, offers some helpful tips and suggestions to get back on track to eating healthier, exercising and feeling your best.

Follow these tips with consistency to help you lose weight and maintain a healthy eating regimen this year.

Eat breakfast – Starting the day out with food in your stomach will help the body burn calories more effectively throughout the day. Also, skipping breakfast and early meals as a way to leave more room for a “big” meal later in the day, such a dinner, is counterintuitive for weight loss. Not only will be you hungry when it’s time to eat that “big” meal, but you will end up eating more than you have to. By skipping breakfast, you will also slow down your metabolism.

Keep up with the 5-times-a-day eating plan – Space out your meals. For example, don’t eat dessert right after a meal. Wait 3-4 hours in between. Also, eat smaller meals and eat them more often making it easier to avoid cravings and overeat.

Take a walk after your meal – The main thing here is to keep moving so whatever exercise you can do will help. The higher you can get your caloric expenditure, the less likely any extra calories will affect you. Taking a walk after your meals can help aid digestion, too.

Water, water, water – Drink lots of water, and avoid drinking your calories. Pair your meals with water and you could be saving hundreds of calories.

20-minute rule – Another thing to remember is that many people mistake thirst for hunger so use the 20-minute water rule when you are feeling hungry. When hunger strikes, drink a tall glass of water. Wait 20 minutes, if the hunger subsides than you were just thirsty, or bored! If it doesn’t, then you are hungry and it is OK to eat.

Stay accountable – Write down, log it on club-os.com, or use a nutrition app such as MyFitnessPal. However you do it, keep yourself accountable. Most people, when asked to remember what they ate, forgot about 20% of it. Keeping track of what you eat can help you avoid over consumption and it can help you to remember what you’ve eaten. If you hit your caloric intake for the day, then that’s it!

PURE Rally28 weight-loss program – Win while you lose. Simply gather a team or Rally as an individual. Order Rally28 weight-loss system. Enter the Rally28 Challenge at challenge.rally28.com after completion of your Rally.

Happy New Year!

By Lauren Gaskey, Personal Trainer and PURE IBO

Sports safety and the importance of post-workout nutrition

SportsSafety-RecoveryShake_0316 How important is nutritional recovery for those who live an active lifestyle?

The science of recovery has been studied for decades and continues to be a hot topic among sports researchers. As the boundaries of human performance continue to be pushed, one of the areas where the greatest strides have been made is in post-workout recovery nutrition.

Initially, Eastern Europeans led this research by testing athletes in controlled settings and providing valuable insight into the body’s ability to be optimized by providing the right ratios of proteins, fats and carbohydrates. We learned from this research, and subsequent research from sports institutes around the world, that within two hours after strenuous activity (called the “Recovery Window”), athletes could get stronger faster and recover much more readily.

This “Nutritional Reload” allows athletes to compete at higher levels day after day. Why is this important for the average person who is trying to maintain a healthy body weight and active lifestyle? Adequate recovery has a tremendous effect physically and mentally. As a former collegiate strength-and-conditioning coach of highly competitive athletes, I believe that if you can motivate the mind, the body will follow. And when the body is fully recovered and rested, not sore and fatigued, the mental component is also recharged and ready to go. This hand-in-glove approach works for anyone of any age or physical ambition.

The science of recovery nutrition

It should come as no surprise that the body is only as good operatively as the quality of fuel that is placed in it.  Continued research into recovery nutrition has led to the creation of many post recovery shakes with complex formulations designed to address three areas.

  1. Replacing glycogen stores (muscle sugar) that may have been depleted during rigorous workout sessions
  2. Providing the proteins and branch chain amino acids necessary for repairing micro tears in muscles that have been stressed
  3. Combating and buffering the effects of exercise induced inflammation (this area is getting the most attention)

Add to this list competing formulations that assist in the repletion of a multitude of nutrients, and the stage is set for the highly competitive market of post workout recovery shakes.

It’s easy to imagine the possibilities of a post-recovery shake and its implications for anyone who leads an active lifestyle. I firmly believe that anyone who is physically active should treat themselves like an athlete if they want to stay as strong and as fit as possible for as long as possible. However, post-workout shakes are more than performance-enhancing products, they act as a safety net for assisting basic human physiology.

Who wouldn’t want to quickly replace and recover their muscle energy; who wouldn’t want to minimize muscle soreness and supply the materials needed to promote growth and repair; and, who wants to live with exercise-induced inflammation?

As we age, the degree of difficulty in our physical world changes. Mowing the lawn for a seventy-year-old person is perhaps physically equivalent to a grueling practice for a high-school athlete. Suffice it to say, recovery is recovery whether you are ninety or nineteen. I would encourage you to incorporate a post-workout recovery shake and experience the benefits that modern science and the athletic world can provide.

For healthier todays and more vibrant tomorrows, all the best!

Coach Mark Paulsen (Coach P) is a former professional athlete and coach and one of the creators of Genesis PURE’s GPS line.

Make every bite count

NutritionBlog_0316 If I had to choose one word to describe Genesis PURE’s mission, it would be “nutrition”.  After a century (at least) of cultural obsession and hype-filled argument surrounding the concept of nutrition, it’s helpful to remember the basics. I like Merriam-Webster’s definition the best:  “The process of eating the right kind of food so you can grow properly and be healthy.”

We all understand “the process of eating”: food on fork into mouth, chew and swallow. I think we have difficulty understanding what should be on the fork and what happens after we chew and swallow the food.

 What is on the fork?

Referencing the above definition, nutrition means eating “the right kind of food”. What does this mean? In the whirlwind of Paleo, vegan, raw vegan, vegetarian, gluten-free, dairy-free, autoimmune, and the standard American diet options, it’s not surprising why so many of us are confused as to what is “right”. Having all of these choices is intimidating and can lead to no change at all. So where do we begin?

What happens after we chew and swallow?

 We must understand the macronutrients, protein, carbohydrates and fats — the basic building blocks and why they are important for the function of our bodies. Suggested proportions exist; however, you must learn the proportions your body needs to support your current activity level and achieve future wellness goals. It is important to understand that although some may choose to be vegetarian, plants contain protein too. And the last I checked, buffalo are not carnivores.

Macronutrients:

  • Protein is found throughout the body in muscle, bone, skin, and hair to name a few. Protein is involved in many biochemical processes that power reactions at the cellular level and thus is essential for life. Protein helps to balance blood sugars. In the United States, the recommended daily allowance of protein is 46 grams per day for women over 19 years of age, and 56 grams per day for men over 19 years of age. (1)
  • Carbohydrates provide the body with glucose which is converted to energy through biochemical processes in the body. Carbohydrates have been classified into high-glycemic and low-glycemic as it affects the blood sugar in the body, suggesting it is the quality of the carbohydrate that matters most. Carbohydrate sources from unprocessed or minimally processed whole grains, vegetables, fruits and beans provide vitamins, minerals, fiber and many phytonutrients. Highly processed simple carbohydrates from refined sugars, white bread and soda will provide immediate energy source at the expense of unbalanced blood sugars. Excess carbohydrates will be stored as glycogen in the liver and when the max of glycogen storage has been reached the excess will be stored in adipose (fat) tissue. Both are designs for energy sources during a time of need for the body.
  • Fat is nutritionally known as fatty acids (not the same as adipose). Fats are essential for the cell membrane function of the brain, the eye, and many nerves in the body. Fats are required for the transport of Vitamins A, C, D, E and K. Cholesterol is a fatty acid present in all cell membranes. In the healthy body, approximately 80 percent of total body cholesterol is manufactured in the liver and 20 percent is derived from the diet. (2) Manufacturers replace fats often with sugar or other starches to achieve a “low fat” classification. More important than adopting a “low fat” approach is choosing the preferred “good” sources of fatty acids from poly- and mono-unsaturated sources such as nuts, seeds, fish, and olive oil. Avoid the “bad” trans-fats altogether and limit saturated fats for optimal health.

“…so you can grow properly and be healthy”.

Let’s examine this last part of the definition. My translation is, “so you can balance the physiological processes of growth, metabolism and repair.” A balanced body will provide a well-functioning machine.

There is not time nor the space here to discuss the hundreds if not thousands of critical vitamins and minerals required by the body to function. Unfortunately, our current diets do not provide all of them which is where supplements may be used to fill in these gaps. One of my favorite studies from the Journal of Clinical Nutrition (3) studied the diets of people who use supplements. They found the primary reasons for using supplements were for overall health and wellness as well as to fill nutrient gaps in the diet. The study also found that supplement users do not use these products as a license to slack off on eating right or exercising, but instead are health conscious individuals trying to do all of the right things to be healthy.

A passion for nutrition.

As a physician and mother, I have developed a passion for nutrition through the years of caring for myself and my family. I did not have a lot of nutrition classes during my medical education; therefore, I read extensively about it and applied what I learned. I found that what I put on my fork as well as how I managed my stress made more of a difference in my wellness goals than how many hours I spent in the gym.

My hope is that something in these few paragraphs will encourage each of you to look at what is on your fork and view it as your single most powerful way to transform your body inside and out. It is your choice what to put or not put into your body. I challenge you to respect yourself and your future enough to make every bite count. You deserve so much more than average. You deserve the best. Stop dreaming about it and make it happen.

Dr. Carmen Keith, M.D. graduated from the University of Arkansas for Medical Science and completed a fellowship at Massachusetts General Hospital, a Harvard Medical School affiliate. Dr. Keith is the Medical Director of Pain Management Services at the hospital where she is employed. She believes that the products and philosophy of Genesis PURE are remarkable ways for her to continue her life’s passion to help others achieve a healthier, happier life.

To learn more about Genesis PURE’s Wellness Advisory Board, visit here:  http://www.genesispure.com/science-education

References:

  1. Institute of Medicine, Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids (Macronutrients). 2005, National Academies Press: Washington, DC.
  2.  Clinical Nutrition: A Functional Approach, 2nd Edition. Page 85
  3.  Consumer Usage and Reasons for Using Dietary Supplements: Report of a Series of Surveys from the Journal of the American College of Nutrition in 2014.

The Dietary Guidelines are out for 2015-2020

DietaryGuidelines_0116 Every five years, the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) jointly release a list of guidelines to follow for a healthy diet.1 Following these tips from the USDA, and Genesis PURE’s Fit Club, can help support your weight-loss and healthy eating goals.

Eat less sugar, meat and sodium.

Healthy diets should limit saturated fats and trans fats, added sugars and sodium. They should also include fruits (especially whole fruits), vegetables, protein, dairy, grains and oils. The dietary guidelines do not talk about limiting sodas and other sugary drinks, but they suggest limiting sugars and saturated fats to 10 percent of total calories, and sodium to 2,300 mg per day. For a 2,000-calorie diet means: 200 calories of sugar and 200 calories of fat. Learn more at heart.org and http://health.gov/dietaryguidelines/2015/guidelines/executive-summary/.

Be aware of the sources of sodium in your diet. According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 40 percent of our daily sodium comes from 10 types of food, some of which do not taste salty. These foods include cured meats and cold cuts, poultry, pizza, soups, cheese, meat dishes, snacks, rolls and bread, and pasta dishes (with the exception of macaroni and cheese).2 It is also common to consume sodium from salad dressings, canned foods, condiments, boxed mixes, bottled marinades and sauces, frozen dinners, some ready-to-eat cereals and cheeses.3 In just one meal, a sandwich with deli meat, pickle relish and other toppings, it is possible to get over 1,500 mg of sodium.

Follow healthy eating patterns.

The guidelines also suggest that we follow a healthy eating pattern our entire life 1

  • Consume a variety of nutrient dense foods:
    • Eat dark green, yellow, purple, red, white, and orange fruits/vegetables
    • Incorporate whole fruits and grains
    • Have a variety of fat-free/low-fat dairy including milk, yogurt, and cheese, and/or fortified soy beverages
    • Vary your protein sources (lean poultry and meats, eggs, seafood, legumes, seeds, nuts, and soy products)
  • Consume healthy oils
  • Control portion sizes
  • Consume healthier food/beverages

Increase activity level.

Americans need to be more physically active. Being inactive means there is no activity beyond those of daily living (ADLs).

  • Per week, adults should have a minimum of:
    • 150 minutes of low-intensity physical activity (casual walking, stretching, slow dancing, fishing, light yard work)
    • 150-300 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity (brisk walking, yoga, jumping on a trampoline, weight training, volleyball, tennis, canoeing, horseback riding).
    • 300 + minutes of high-intensity physical activity (running, jogging, step aerobics, jumping rope, boxing, swimming laps, skiing)
  • Being physically active can:
    • Help maintain a healthy body weight
    • May improve bone health when weight-bearing exercises are incorporated
  • If you have been inactive, gradually build your level of activity.4 It may be advisable to check with your health care provider to find out how much and what level of physical activity is appropriate for you.

Make a plan and track your progress.

Genesis PURE™ products

Many of our products, like Daily Build and Coral Calcium, help supplement your vitamin and mineral requirements, in addition to fruits and vegetables. Superfruits are a wonderful source of antioxidants, such as Genesis PURE’s Mangosteen, Noni, Acai and Goji. Additional fiber and omega-3 fatty acids can be found in Mila. Don’t forget about ENERGY for pre-workout hydration or Hydration for post-workout hydration. The HealthTrim® line can supplement your diet as part of your daily calories and can help with weight management.

Stay fit this year with Fit Club! Learn more at the Genesis PURE Fit Club Facebook page .

 1(Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2015-2020, 8th Ed., online http://health.gov/dietaryguidelines/2015/guidelines/?platform=hootsuite). According to the executive summary for the dietary guidelines (Dietary Guidelines 2015-2020. Executive Summary. Online http://health.gov/dietaryguidelines/2015/guidelines/executive-summary/)

2 (Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Last updated and reviewed August 21, 2014. Accessed from http://www.cdc.gov/salt/sources.htm. Accessed on January 25, 2016).

3(Keller, M. Seasonings of change. Today’s Dietitian. Oct 2009; 11: 10 (40) Accessed on January 25, 2016. Accessed from http://www.todaysdietitian.com/newarchives/100509p40.shtml)

4(Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, health.gov. Chapter 1: Introducing the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. Last updated: January 25, 2016. Accessed on January 25, 2016. Accessed from http://health.gov/paguidelines/guidelines/chapter1.aspx).

Cheryl Reifer, PhD, RD/LD, is a research scientist at Genesis PURE. She is an educator, public speaker, clinical dietitian, clinical nutrition manager, food industry consultant executive, and published researcher with more than 20 years of experience. Cheryl has worked internationally in business development, assisting food companies’ needs in regulatory affairs, research, and health marketing. Clinically, Cheryl has worked in hospitals, outpatient clinics, and nursing homes in areas of medical nutrition therapy, such as diabetes, heart disease, organ failure, nutrition support, and many others. She has also served as a manager over dietitians, developing and implementing policies and systems. As a speaker, Cheryl has appeared on the Health and Science TV network, served on pharmacy speaker bureaus and on panels such as the Forth Worth Life Sciences Coalition.

Cheryl’s published research interest areas include diabetes and probiotics. Current weight loss interests include teaching/implementing a heart-healthy program for contractors to the military. Cheryl is the 2016-2018 newsletter editor for the Dietitian’s Research Practice group (DRPG) of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (formerly, the American Dietetic Association). Cheryl is serving on the national board of trustees for Research and Ethics for the Society of Public Health Education (SOPHE), 2016-2018.

Cheryl has a PhD in health studies from Texas Woman’s University, a BS in nutrition and an MS in adult education, including graduate hours in nutrition from Texas A&M University, and is a Registered Dietitian and Licensed Dietitian for Texas.

View Genesis PURE’s Wellness Advisory Board and the Nutritional Research and Education team here. http://www.genesispure.com/science-education.

 

Make your resolutions truly healthy ones

WeightLoss_CarrieBeth_0116Welcome to 2016! With the New Year comes new goals and dreams. Are you one of the 45% of Americans who make New Year’s resolutions? Being three weeks into the New Year, how are you doing with them? According to statistics collected by the University of Scranton for the Journal of Clinical Psychology, 71% of people who make New Year’s resolutions generally keep them for the first two weeks, but by the end of the first month, the number declines to 64% and at six months, only 46% of people are still working on those resolutions.

Any guesses as to the number one New Year’s resolution in 2015 (and I am willing to bet will still be number one in 2016)? According to the same set of statistics, losing weight tops the list. How many of you agree and even perhaps have it on the top of your resolution list? I know it has frequently topped my list. Do you wonder how and if you can succeed? The short answer is: Yes. Let me explain…

Dieting versus healthy eating

I have struggled with weight for most of my life. I would gain, get frustrated, choose a “diet,” and lose 20-30 pounds. Then something would happen; I’d quit and gain back 40 pounds. It felt like a never-ending cycle. I would exercise, but nothing ever seemed to be enough. I tried just about every “diet” plan and workout on the market, but each turned out to be a failure, which then translated into me being a failure. But a few years ago, I had a conversation with a friend about what she was reading. It was a book on healthy eating, versus dieting. There is a difference. She challenged me to read it. I discovered avenues I had never pursued before, and decided healthy eating was worth a try. In the first week, I lost five pounds. Tell me that isn’t exciting! As I continued down this path, the weight dropped and I started to feel better, too.

Enter Genesis PURE

A few months later, this same friend invited me to a home presentation about health and wellness. I sat politely and listened, but inside all I saw were red flags. Cleanse, Balance, Build, Love? That’s how you get healthy? Everyone always asks how and why you got involved in Genesis PURE. The how was a friend invited me. The why was to prove their philosophy wrong. I wanted to find the hole in the system that would make everything crumble. However, I have to say in the two-and-a-half years that I’ve been using Genesis PURE™ products, I have been unable to find that hole.

When you give the body what it needs, it will be able to do what it was created to do. If you feed the body health and wellness, it will provide health and wellness. If you feed the body garbage, well, that’s what will come out. Don’t try this yourself; simply believe it from someone who has done it enough.

I have shared my story at Genesis PURE events and am frequently asked, “What products did you use to lose weight?” I tell them to find what works for them. It is honestly not about a specific product or group of products, it is about a philosophy of cleansing and building your body, when combined with a healthy diet and regular exercise. There is no magic juice or pill that is going to help you take the weight off; and I encourage you to run far, far away from any company or plan that makes those claims.

Cleanse, Balance, Build, Love

  • Cleanse your body. Our world is swarming with toxins. They are in the air we breathe, the water we drink, and the food we eat. And, they’re not just physical. We have mental toxins – negative thoughts that create barriers to success. We have people toxins – they just make life extra difficult. Sometimes, you have to do a total life cleanse. This is about you and being the healthy, vibrant person you were created to be.
  • Balance your body. Every system in the body strives to maintain status quo. When something is out of balance, our bodies will do what’s necessary to get that balance back. For instance, we know calcium supports strong bones and helps regulate certain activities of our heart, muscles and brain. When we don’t get enough, the body will take the calcium from other parts of the body in order to maintain balance, keep the heart, muscles and brain functioning, and essentially keep you alive. Since calcium is stored in bones, the body breaks down and weakens bone to restore this balance. We must supply the body with what it needs to stay balanced. Not only physical balance, but emotional, mental and spiritual balance, too. Sleep. Take time for yourself (and don’t feel guilty). Find ways to decrease stress. This all brings balance to the body.
  • Build your body. We must provide our body with the basic nutrients needed to be strong and healthy. Also, one size NEVER fits all. You must find and give your body what it needs to be healthy. Start with the basics, a multivitamin is probably good for everyone, but is there anything else? Maybe you need Goji or sulfur. Find something you enjoy and do it. Exercise; the body needs movement to become strong and healthy. As we grow and change, so too will your body’s needs to become stronger. Respect yourself, too.
  • Love your body. This may be the most important part of the philosophy. If you do not love yourself, you cannot succeed. You have to decide that YOU ARE WORTH THIS. You have to do it for you; not for someone else or to match the airbrushed models seen in a magazine. You must get healthy for you. And if you haven’t heard it from anyone else, hear it from me. YOU ARE WORTH THIS.

It is also nice to have the love and support of the people closest to you. My Genesis PURE team, or family rather, has provided much of that. When I lost my first 100 pounds, my Black Diamond leaders threw me a 100-pound party. And, the couple who introduced me to Genesis PURE has continued to support my journey, they correct me when I get off track, and they even ran a half marathon with me. My Genesis PURE family has been my biggest cheerleader and I can pretty much guarantee yours will be for you as well. We must love and support each other. I believe it’s the only way to fully embrace the philosophy of Genesis PURE and move toward total health and wellness.

A great way to support each other is by joining the Fit Club Challenge to network with like-minded people. Join today and start receiving support from people who are dedicated to the same goals as you. Love yourself and accept love and support from those around you who really do care. They cared enough to share Genesis PURE with you.

I used Genesis PURE’s philosophy, combined with a healthy diet and regular exercise, to lose weight and keep it off. One hundred and twenty pounds later, I can tell you it works. It will work for you too if you believe and live it. It isn’t going to be easy and some days will be more successful than others. The best things rarely come easily, but they are always worth the fight.

This is your year. It’s your time not just to lose the weight, but to become the healthy person you were created to be. Make that your resolution for 2016.

YOU. GOT. THIS.

Carrie Beth Smith, PharmD, BCPS

Dr. Carrie Beth is a seasoned expert in the field of pharmacology whose perspective on well-being will help carry Genesis PURE’s vision to the world. She finds her greatest motivation in coaching others to improve their overall health and wellness.

Weight loss results may vary based on individual users. Genesis PURE products are designed to be used in conjunction with a sensible diet and regular exercise. Persons interested in using Genesis PURE products or programs to maintain healthy weight should consult with their health care provider prior to beginning any new nutrition and exercise program.

Revisiting the weight loss resolution

FoodJournal_0116Many of us commit to losing weight when making New Year’s resolutions; in fact, losing weight was the number one resolution for 2015.  However, statistics show that only 8% of people are actually successful in achieving their resolution(s).1 Trying to lose weight after the New Year often comes with several struggles, frustrations, and often, quitting a program and reverting to old habits.

Losing weight is a journey and only you know when you’re ready to commit to such a feat.  Extreme methods aside, there is no one correct way to achieve your weight loss goals. The most effective plan is the one you can commit to for the long term.

The benefits of journaling

I believe strongly in keeping a food diary. If you’ve tried this in the past and found it tedious or time consuming, perhaps this will inspire you.  A 2008 study conducted by Kaiser Permanente’s Center for Health Research revealed that keeping a food diary helped double weight loss.2

Funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, the National Institute of Health, the study revealed that the more food records people kept, the more weight they lost.  It seems that the simple act of writing down what you eat encourages scrutiny of food intake and quality, helping you ultimately consume fewer calories.

Participants turned in their diaries at weekly support meetings, making them accountable. They also followed a heart-healthy DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) diet.  Following these protocols, the average weight loss among 1,700 participants was 13 pounds, and more than two-thirds of the participants lost at least nine pounds.2  You can also share your food diary with your doctor, health coach, dietitian, personal trainer, or other support system, who can help you along the way.

Keeping a food diary doesn’t have to be fancy. Dietitians and nutritionists agree that journaling is one of the best ways to be successful in achieving weight-loss goals.  And it doesn’t matter whether your journal is an app on your phone, a spiral notebook, or a nice leather-bound journal, as long as you are completely honest with yourself.

When trying to improve eating habits, many people underestimate their food intake.  Remember, everything counts, including the third cup of coffee you had with cream, the chicken nugget you ate off your child’s plate, or the lick you took from the batter bowl. Seeing every little bite on paper can help you identify where the excess calories are coming from; therefore helping you adjust your diet and macronutrients accordingly. And, note that you will stray, and that’s OK. As long as you recognize that you’re straying, that will nudge you to get back on track.

Always reflect on what you eat in order to become aware of your eating habits. Do you mindlessly munch while watching television or gravitate towards sweets when stressed? Do this and your behaviors will change for the long run … and for the better.

Has journaling helped you in your weight loss goals? We’d love to hear about your tips and suggestions.

References:

  1. Statistic Brain. New Years Resolution Statistics. Available at http://www.statisticbrain.com/new-years-resolution-statistics (2015).
  2. Kaiser Permanente Study Finds Keeping a Food Diary Doubles Diet Weight Loss (2008).